Is the prospect of the hottest nuclear heating bri

2022-09-21
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Is the prospect of nuclear heating bright?

due to the implementation of coal pollution restrictions and the inability of coal to gas to keep up with the demand for heating, some people were frozen last winter

in this context, domestic companies represented by CNNC have been considering nuclear heating in the stainless steel standard to provide winter heating sources

for example, on November 28 last year, CNNC released the "Yanlong" pool type low-temperature heating reactor, which can be used to realize district heating

it is estimated that such a yanlongdui, 400m, considering the weak downstream market w (1mw=1000kw), has a heating construction area of about 20million square meters, equivalent to 200000 three bedroom households

in addition to the release of Yanlong reactor, CNNC also launched a heating demonstration project - swimming pool light water reactor (reactor), which can achieve safe heating for 168 hours, verifying the feasibility and safety of swimming pool reactor heating

the principle of this kind of reactor is to use a small low-temperature (no more than 100 ℃) nuclear reactor for heating

In other words, nuclear power plants use the heat energy released by the reactor to generate electricity, while low-temperature heating reactors use the heat energy directly for heating

the space required for this kind of heating reactor is about the size of a shell or a pool, so it can be divided into shell type or pool type

this technology is not the first in China, and there are research precedents in other countries, such as Switzerland, Canada, France, Germany, etc. Russia is constantly promoting the development of nuclear heating due to its own climate problems

the advantages of this kind of reactor are both clean and low-carbon. "A 400 MW pool type low-temperature heating reactor, compared with a coal-fired heating station of the same scale, the radioactive release is only about 2% of the coal-fired emission, achieving almost zero emission". It also has relatively good economy, and can be put into use in all regions without site selection pressure. In terms of safety, it also has the advantages of "zero reactor melting, zero emission and easy decommissioning"

how to explain this security

that is, because its core is located at the bottom of the pool, it is always submerged. Even if no intervention measures are taken under accident conditions, high-capacity water can ensure that the reactor core is not exposed and realize "zero reactor melting"

at the same time, set the isolation circuit and make its pressure higher than the primary circuit and heating circuit to ensure that the radioactive water does not leak heat

in addition, radioactivity can be effectively isolated through multiple safety lines and barriers such as fuel cladding, reactor pool, plant and deep underground

take the heating reactor for example. The measured radiation dose level of the office building displayed in the main control room is 0.13 microsieverts/hour, which is equivalent to the background value of Beijing

but for nuclear heating, whether it can really be put into operation in China and realize regional heating, there are the following questions that need to be considered 5 1 set of questions for standard cup punching experimental mold

first, it is still an economic problem

it is understood that in terms of construction investment, compared with other fossil energy heating, the construction investment of pool type low-temperature heating reactor is about two to three times that of coal-fired boilers of the same scale

the operating cost is far lower than that of coal-fired boilers, with a service life of 40-60 years, which is 2-4 times that of coal-fired boilers, and there is no transportation pressure. If the annual heating time is 4 months, the economy of pool heating reactor can be equivalent to that of coal-fired boiler

but how to use the pool stack in the neutral period, that is, the non heating period, is also a problem

second, how to plan policies

in fact, China has carried out research on nuclear heating since the 1980s. In 1983, Tsinghua University transformed the swimming pool reactor of the Nuclear Energy Institute of Tsinghua University to realize nuclear heating and heat the building of the Nuclear Energy Institute for two consecutive years. In 1989, Tsinghua university completed the research and development of a special heating reactor with a power of 5 MW. However, nuclear heating has never been used, and Chinese enterprises often introduce foreign technology to achieve the renewal and wide-ranging promotion of generation 1 products

from the side, it also reflects that the country is cautious about nuclear heating, or has its own planning and ideas

at present, although we are vigorously advocating clean energy and implementing structural reform, it is estimated that the implementation of real nuclear heating needs further approval

finally, whether the people accept this way of heating

whether it is coal or natural gas heating, pollution or hazards are visible or avoidable to the public, and the consistent avoidance psychology about nuclear will make the public feel that there will be radiation hazards or invisible hazards

the nuclear power station is still far away from the people's living area, and there will be some opposition to the site selection. The nuclear heating is closer to the area. Is it acceptable for the people? This also needs to be considered

at present, for the north, which urgently needs to change its heating mode, in addition to nuclear heating, there are many alternative heating modes, such as geothermal heating, biomass heating, solar heating, natural gas heating, electric heating, industrial waste heat heating, clean coal-fired central heating, and "coal to gas" for winter clean heating in key areas in the north

in front of these heating methods, unless nuclear heating shows greater advantages, the prospect will be brighter

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