Block printing promotes the spread of Buddhism in

2022-05-20
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Engraving printing promotes the spread of Buddhism in China and East Asia

on September 30, 2009, the Chinese engraving printing technology declared by Jiangsu Yangzhou Guangling ancient book engraving agency on behalf of China was officially selected into the list of representative works of human intangible cultural heritage. Block printing has a history of more than 1300 years, 400 years earlier than movable type printing. Throughout the whole process of the emergence and development of block printing in China, almost all of them left traces of the spread of Buddhism. From printing simple Buddhist statues and sutras to printing Buddhist classics on a large scale, on the one hand, it has improved the technology of engraving printing and expanded the spread of Buddhism in China and East Asia

woodblock printing promotes the spread of Buddhism in China

China's earlier woodblock printing is mainly used in the spread of Buddhism. From the perspective of unearthed cultural relics, ancient classics and historical records, China's earlier woodblock printing is mainly used in the spread of Buddhism. In this process, eminent monks, emperors, scholars and believers all contributed to the flames

Xuanzang was one of the earliest monks in China who used block printing to spread Buddhism. According to the biography of master Sanzang of daci'en temple in the Tang Dynasty written by Hui Li, one of Xuanzang's direct disciples, after Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty took office, in view of his father's respect for Xuanzang, Emperor Gaozong also paid great respect to Xuanzang, sent courtiers to express condolences, and gave thousands of silk brocades and hundreds of robes. After Xuanzang accepted it, he scattered as he liked and had nothing to save. Vow to create the image of shijuyuedi (shijuyuedi is a transliteration of the Sanskrit quantifier Koti, and shijuyuedi is 1 million copies) and create it. From the first year to the 15th year of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty (AD), Xuan Zang printed 1 million copies of Buddha statues by block printing and distributed them to the majority of Buddhist believers

the most typical example of the emperor's use of block printing to spread Buddhism is Zhao Kuangyin's printing of Kaibao. In the fourth year of Kaibao in the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 971), Zhao Kuangyin, the emperor Taizu of the Song Dynasty, ordered his ministers Gao pin and Zhang Congxin to go to Yizhou (now Chengdu, Sichuan) to preside over the engraving of the Tibetan Sutra, and completed all the engraving of 130000 scriptures in the eighth year of rejuvenating the country in the Taiping period (AD 983), and then began to print the Chinese version of the Tibetan Sutra, the first official woodblock engraving in Chinese history. Since the Da Zang Jing was first engraved in the Kaibao period of the Northern Song Dynasty, it is called Kaibao

for another example, the devout Buddhist King Qian Chu of Wu and Yue, together with the eminent monk longevity prolonging mage, carved and printed a large number of Buddha statues and Tatu spells. In addition, Qian Xu built Hangzhou Leifeng Tower on Xizhao mountain on the South Bank of West Lake in the second year of Taiping and rejuvenating the country in the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 977). At that time, the pagoda contained a woodblock printed scripture "Leifeng Pagoda Sutra", also known as "treasure trunk printed dharoni Sutra". This sutra is now collected in the library of Guangdong Sun Yat sen University

scholars used block printing to spread Buddhism, represented by Su Shi, a famous poet and poet in the Northern Song Dynasty. In the eighth year of Yuanfeng in the Northern Song Dynasty (1085 AD), Zhang Dao, the crown prince, presented Su Shi with the golden mountain lunga abadora Sutra and asked him to apply the seal of the Sutra between the Yangtze River and the Huaihe River. In the same year, Su Shi brought this Sutra to Jinshan Temple in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. With the help of Jinshan Temple elder Buddha seal master, Su Shi wrote all the Scriptures, and then invited skilled craftsmen to Jinshan Temple to carve scriptures and enter the system test state. After the engraving, the Sutra has been kept in Jinshan Temple. Both believers and pilgrims can print it whenever they want, which makes the Sutra widely spread

in the Jin Dynasty, Cui Fazhen, the daughter of Cui Jin, a government official in Luzhou (now in Changzhi, Shanxi Province), was a devout Buddhist. She made a fortune by breaking her arm and raised money to publish the Zhaocheng gold collection. Many Buddhist believers were deeply moved and donated money to help. Around the ninth year of emperor Xizong's reign (1149 AD), the golden collection of Zhaocheng began to be engraved, which lasted about 30 years. The golden collection of Zhaocheng is clearly printed and the font is vigorous. There is a beautiful picture of Sakyamuni Buddha at the beginning of each volume. It is not only a precious specimen in the history of printing in China, but also a precious material for studying the history of Scripture carving and edition in China

engraving printing technology made the Buddhist sound spread throughout Xixia and Tibetan inhabited areas. With the increasing improvement of engraving printing technology, Buddhist classics were still spreading rapidly in Xixia Dynasty, which was founded on Buddhism in the 9th century. The Xixia Dynasty was founded on Buddhism. Both officials and ordinary people were very eager for Buddhist classics. In order to develop Buddhism, the rulers of Xixia had repeatedly purchased Buddhist classics from the Northern Song Dynasty. In the pagoda of Gaotai temple, an important temple built during the Western Xia Dynasty, there is the carved and printed Da Zang Jing given by the Song Dynasty. From 1908 to 1909, Russian Explorer Kozlov excavated and unearthed a large number of block printed Xixia Buddhist scriptures and Chinese Buddhist scriptures in Heishui City, Ejina Banner, Inner Mongolia. These unearthed cultural relics also demonstrated the fact that block printing is one of the ways of Buddhism dissemination

in the 13th century, block printing was introduced into Tibetan areas and made great contributions to the preservation and dissemination of Tibetan Buddhist documents. In Tibetan inhabited areas, Scripture printing houses have been built one after another to publish and print Buddhist classics on a large scale. Built in the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty and known as the bright cultural pearl of the Tibetan region and the treasure house under the snow mountain, Sichuan dege Scripture Printing Institute is famous. The most important printed matter is Buddhist classics. At present, the total number of engravings collected by dege Scripture Printing Institute has reached more than 290000. The most rare thing is that there are many rare, isolated and model Buddhist scriptures in the large number of block printed Buddhist scriptures collected by dege Scripture Printing Institute

engraving printing promotes the spread of Buddhism in East Asia

engraving printing. Jianzhen is a gift to Japanese Buddhism. Jianzhen is an eminent monk and scholar in China and is very proficient in Chinese culture, especially engraving printing. According to the book "biography of Jianzhen monks in the Three Kingdoms" written by the Japanese monk Xuandong, Jianzhen used block printing to print three major parts of the law school in Japan: action notes annotated by the quaternion law, Jie Mo Shu and Jie Ben Shu

the proof that engraving printing was introduced into Japan with Buddhism is that Xuanfang, a monk who studied abroad for 19 years in the Tang Dynasty, brought back more than 5000 volumes of Buddhist scriptures and many Buddhist statues when he returned to Japan. Ji Beizhen, a Japanese student and Deputy envoy to the Tang Dynasty, has lived in China for 18 years. After returning to Japan, Ji Beizhen became a teacher of the Japanese emperor of Germany. Later, under the auspices of Jibei Zhenbei, it was said that the German Emperor ordered the engraving and printing of 1 million copies of the dharoni mantra

during the yuan and Ming Dynasties, there were many Chinese engravers from Zhejiang and Fujian who went to Japan to make a living. At that time, Japanese monasteries were turning a large number of Buddhist scriptures and printing plates of quotations of eminent monks. Therefore, these Chinese carvers played a great role in the process of Buddhist Scripture carving in Japan and promoted the wide spread of Buddhism

engraving printing was introduced into Korea with Buddhism at the beginning of its invention. In October 1966, a printed Chinese version of daturoni sutra was found in today's Buddhist temple in Gyeongju, South Korea, with characters invented by Wu Zetian. This material object can prove that engraving printing was introduced to the Korean Peninsula through Buddhism at the beginning of its invention in China

in the eighth year of Taiping and rejuvenating the country in the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 983), Kaibao was completed. Soon, the Koryo people who advocated Buddhism (the Koryo Dynasty in the song and Liao dynasties, now referring to the Korean people on the Korean Peninsula) heard the news and sent envoys to the Song Dynasty to ask the Song Dynasty to give the Tibetan Sutra. In the second year of Duangong in the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 989), Korea sent envoys to pay tribute, so the Song Dynasty gave the Da Zang Jing. This is the first time that the block printed version of the Tibetan sutra was introduced into Korea. After the song version of the Tibetan sutra was introduced into Korea, it promoted the development of Korean Buddhist culture. Under the influence of China, Koryo people soon learned the technology of block printing. At the time of King Xian of Koryo, he began to carve and print the Koryo Sutra, which was mainly based on the "treasure opening" of the Northern Song Dynasty

in the eighth year of Yuanfeng in the Northern Song Dynasty (A.D. 1085), Shi Yitian, the son of King Wen of Korea, came to China. In addition to learning Buddhist teachings, he also widely collected Buddhist classics and Confucian classics. After returning to China, shiyitian set up a teaching and Tibetan capital prison in gaolixing king temple to record the Buddhist scriptures purchased from song, Liao and Japan and the Buddhist classics obtained by song. It was printed and engraved as "continued to be re launched by BMW Group in 2001", with a total of more than 4700 volumes. After this sutra was spread to the Song Dynasty, many large monasteries engraved the parts that had not been engraved in China, which contributed to the spread of Chinese Buddhist history

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